Il monte Tamer © Kappati

Correct behavior in mountain

  • 1 – Before each trip you must make sure about experience and preparation of all participants, adults and children. Mountaineering requires surefooted and no dizziness.

  • 2 – Every trip has to be planned on route descriptions and maps. Informations of Alpine Clubs and local experts, such as mountain guides and refuge managers, can contribute in a meaningful way.

  • 3 – Equipment and appropriate clothing are essential to the practice of mountaineering. For climbing and iron paths remember safety equipment, including helmets.During winter you should have emergency equipment (flashlight, shovel, probe, transceiver). For excursions are needed sturdy shoes with a good tread. Because mountain weather can change suddenly, it’s important to protect yourself with proper clothing in case of rain and cold.

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The first to venture in the mountainous regions “to feed the sacred fire of knowledge“ were topographers, to determine the height, and, moreover, crystal-workers and naturalists, that, during first half of the eighteenth century began to wander in the Alps in search of rare stones and flowers. Still lacked the desire to reach the top an aim with nothing more than the mere satisfaction of reaching it. In 1726 Giovanni Zanichelli and Pietro Stefanelli, looking for flowers, reached a peak “almost” dolomite (Cimon del Cavallo 2251 m, on the Alpago mountain) and the Swiss Horace Benedicte De Saussure, while in Chamonix to study the Mont Blanc, offered a reward three ghineeas to those who could reach its top and thus determine its height. That was achieved by Jacques Balmat, crystal-worker, and Michel Gabriel Piccard, physicist, in August 8, 1786.

Also the discoverer of the white mineral with shades of pink, which is dolomite, was a naturalist. In the summer of 1789, while in Paris the Revolution was breaking out, the French Dieudonné Sylvain Guy de Tancrède Grater de Dolomieu (this is the full name) during a study tour in Tyrol noticed that some rocks chemically reacted in a different way than the calcite that formed the limestone mountains already known. Completed his research on the Alps, he sent the samples to be examined to Nicolas Theodore de Saussure, who published the discovery in 1792 in the Journal de Physiquee baptizing “dolomite” that double carbonate of calcium and magnesium. Of course, the discovery of Dolomieu had a great echo in the scientific world and attracted the scientific curiosity of other geologists and naturalists.

Many years later, the British Josiah Gilbert and George C. Churchill (the first a painter, the second a naturalist) in his book The Dolomites Mountains (1864), extended to the mountains of the region the name of the rock of which those mountain were predominantly formed. Even cartographers began to map the Dolomites in those years. Peter Anich and Balsius Hüber, were commissioned in 1760 by the Austrian Institute of Military Geography to map the Tyrol, which was published in 1833 and became an essential tool for climbers who after that began to explore the region.

Meanwhile, the first guides began to appear , such as Die Deutschen Alpendi Adolf Schaubach (five volumes published from 1845 to 1850), and Deutsches Alpenbuchdi Heinrich Noe (four volumes published in the same year). But the Dolomites mountains were still among the least known of the Alps, the descriptions were inaccurate and the information was, however, intended to generics “travelers” indicating where to stay and eat, rent horses, find a guide, a doctor or a money-changer. The journey of Amelia Blandford Edwards in the region (“Untrodden peaks and unfrequented valleys-a midsummer Rumble Among Dolomites” 1872) was in the middle of <>, the few roads uneasy to walk on and transfers long and tiring, stops were in inadequate housing. The region had no attraction for the inhabitants of the plains of Lombardy and Veneto. The few occasional visitors were the young Austro-Hungarian and Anglo-Saxon, for the Grand Tour (also mentioned in the Cook travel agency catalog in London), descend from the north to the Adriatic Sea, the cities of art and commerce centers of Italy.

In 1868 was published the Guide of the Eastern Alpsdi John Ball, a little more useful for those interested in climbing, but the first specific guide about this matter (Wanderungen in den Dolomites) was published only in 1877 by Paul Grohmann , who arrived in Cortina in 1858, having only twenty years old, who for this specific purpose planned a series of climbings throughout the region.

The conquest of the mountain peaks began with a delay with respect to the Mont Blanc because of the different morphology of the mountains. In the Dolomites, in contrast to the Western Alps , above the valleys or pastures or wooded hills stand almost vertical walls that seem impossible to overcome. The only mountain that appeared , in the north side , with a “Western” morphology was the Marmolada (not yet classified as the highest peak) , with a glacier to explore, but rather easy to climb with spiked boots. Marmolada were made the first attempts to climb. In 1802, Father Joseph Terza, pastor of the Parish of Livinallongo , lost his life in an attempt to reach the top “for fun” with five companions . In 1856, Don Pedro and Don Lorenzo Mugna Nicolai , accompanied by a guide, Pellegrino Pellegrini, went up the mountain to enjoy the view on the south side , but did not reach the summit itself ( PENIA PEAK 3343 m), but Punta Rocca ( 3309 m). The real peak was then reached by Paul Grohmann in 1864.


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